Workplace Health and Safety Information Home Page

Chapter 105 - Guide to Units and Abbreviations

INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS

The International System of Units is a decimal system of weights and measures which is based on and extends the metric system. It is abbreviated as SI in all languages.

SI includes seven basic units (see table 105.1). The metre, defined to be 1,650,763.73 wavelengths in vacuum of the red-orange line of the krypton-86 spectrum, is the SI unit for length. The kilogram, which is approximately 2.2 pounds avoirdupois and equals 1,000 grams (as defined by the platinum-iridium prototype kilogram held by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Sèvres, France), is the SI unit for mass. It is the sole base unit that remains defined by an artefact. It is also the only SI unit with a prefix as part of its name and symbol. The second, or the duration of 9,192,631,770 cycles of the radiation corresponding to a specified transition of the caesium-133 atom, is the SI unit for time. The ampere is the SI unit for electric current. It is the constant current produced by one volt which, when maintained in two parallel conductors separated by one metre in vacuum, generates an electromagnetic force of 2 x 10-7 N m-1. The kelvin, which is equal to 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature at the triple point of water, is the SI unit for thermodynamic temperature. The kelvin’s magnitude equals that of the degree Celsius; however, a temperature expressed in degrees Celsius is the numerical equivalent of the temperature in kelvins less 273.15. The mole is the SI unit for amount of substance; it contains as many elementary units of substance as there are atoms in 0.012 kg of carbon-12. Elementary units must be specified, as they may be atoms, electrons, ions, molecules, radicals, etc. The candela is the SI unit for luminous intensity. It equals the luminous intensity of the black-body radiation, in the perpendicular direction, from an area of 1/600,000 square metres at platinum’s freezing temperature (2,042 kelvins) under 101,325 pascals of pressure, which approximates the intensity of a single paraffin candle.

Table 105.1 SI base units

Quantity

SI unit name

Symbol

Length

Metre

m

Mass1

Kilogram

kg

Time

Second

s

Electric current

Ampere

A

Thermodynamic temperature

Kelvin2

K

Amount of substance

Mole

mol

Luminous intensity

Candela

cd

1 "Weight" is often used to mean "mass".

2 The name "degree kelvin" and the symbol "degK" were declared obsolete at a 1967 international conference.

SI also includes two supplementary units (see table 105.2). Radian and steradian are the dimensionless units for the dimensionless quantities plane angle and solid angle, respectively. Units for other quantities are derived from the seven basic and two supplementary units.

Table 105.2 SI supplementary units

Quantity

SI unit name

Symbol

Expression in terms of SI base units

Plane angle

Radian

rad

m·m-1 =1

Solid angle

Steradian

sr

m2 ·m-2 =1

Table 105.3 lists selected SI derived units expressed in terms of base units. Derived units with special names and symbols are listed in table 105.4. These may be used to express other derived units (see table 105.5). The two supplementary units may also be used to express derived units (see table 105.6).

Table 105.3 Selected SI derived units expressed in terms of base units

Quantity

SI unit name

Symbol

Area

Square metre

m2

Volume

Cubic metre

m3

Speed, velocity

Metre per second

m/s

Acceleration

Metre per second squared

m/s2

Wave number

Reciprocal metre

m-1

Density, mass density

Kilogram per cubic metre

kg/m3

Specific volume

Cubic metre per kilogram

m3/kg

Current density

Ampere per square metre

A/m2

Magnetic field strength

Ampere per metre

A/m

Concentration (of amount of substance)

mole per cubic metre

mol/m3

Luminance

Candela per square metre

cd/m2

Table 105.4 SI derived units with special names

Quantity

SI unit name

Symbol

Expression in terms of other units

Frequency

Hertz

Hz

s-1

Force

Newton

N

m·kg/s2

Pressure, stress

Pascal

Pa

N/m2

Energy, work, quantity of heat

Joule

J

N·m

Power, radiant flux

Watt

W

J/s

Electric charge, quantity of electricity

Coulumb

C

s·A

Electric potential, potential difference, electromotive force

Volt

V

W/A

Capacitance

Farad

F

C/V

Electric resistance

Ohm

Omega

V/A

Electric conductance

Siemens

S

A/V

Magnetic flux

Weber

Wb

V·s

Magnetic flux density

Tesla

T

Wb/m2

Inductance

Henry

H

Wb/A

Celsius temperature1

Degree Celsius

°C

K

Luminous flux

Lumen

lm

cd·sr

Activity (of a radionuclide)

Becquerel

Bq

s-1

Absorbed dose, specific energy imparted, kerma, absorbed dose index

Gray

Gy

J/kg

Dose equivalent, dose equivalent index

Sievert

Sv

J/kg

1 In addition to the thermodynamic temperature (T) expressed in kelvins (see table 105.1), Celsius temperature (t) is also used and is defined by the equation t = T - T0 where T0 = 273.15 K by definition. The unit "degree Celsius", which is equal to the unit "kelvin", is used to express Celsius temperature.  Here, the term "degree Celsius" is a special name substituted for "kelvin". However, a difference or interval of Celsius temperature can be expressed in either kelvins or degrees Celsius.

TAble 105.5 Examples of SI derived units expressed with special names

Quantity

SI unit name

Symbol

Dynamic viscosity

Pascal second

Pa·s

Moment of force

Newton metre

N·m

Surface tension

Newton per metre

N/m

Heat flux density, irradiance

Watt per square metre

W/m2

Heat capacity, entropy

Joule per kelvin

J/K

Specific heat capacity, specific entropy

Joule per kilogram kelvin

J/(kg·K)

Specific energy

Joule per kilogram

J/kg

Thermal conductivity

Watt per metre kelvin

W/(m·K)

Energy density

Joule per cubic metre

J/m3

Electric field strength

Volt per metre

V/m

Electric charge density

Coulomb per cubic metre

C/m3

Electric flux density

Coulomb per square metre

C/m2

Permittivity

Farad per metre

F/m

Permeability

Henry per metre

H/m

Molar energy

Joule per metre

J/mol

Molar entropy, molar heat capacity

Joule per mole kelvin

J/(mol·K)

Exposure (x and gamma rays)

Coulomb per kilogram

C/kg

Absorbed dose rate

Gray per second

Gy/s

Table 105.6 Examples of SI derived units formed with supplementary units

Quantity

SI unit name

Symbol

Angular velocity

Radian per second

rad/s

Angular acceleration

Radian per second squared

rad/s2

Radiant intensity

Watt per steradian

W/sr

Radiance

Watt per square metre steradian

W/(m2·sr)

The 16 prefixes used to create multiples and submultiples of SI units are listed in table 105.7. Since multiple prefixes cannot be used, these prefixes are used with gram (g), but not with kilogram (kg).

Table 105.7 SI prefixes

Factor

Prefix

Symbol

1018

exa

E

1015

peta

P

1012

tera

T

109

giga

G

106

mega

M

103

kilo

k

102

hecto

h

101

deka

da

10-1

deci

d

10-2

centi

c

10-3

milli

m

10-6

micro

µ

10-9

nano

n

10-12

pico

p

10-15

femto

f

10-18

atto

a

A number of units that are not part of SI are widely used, especially in the United States. Those which are considered acceptable for use with SI in the US are listed in table 105.8. A conversion table for SI units is provided in table 105.9.

Table 105.8 Units in use with SI

Name

Symbol

Value in SI unit

Minute (time)

min

1 min = 60 s

Hour

h

1 h = 60 min = 3,600 s

Day

d

1 d = 24 h = 86,400 s

Degree (angle)

°

1° = (pi/180) rad

Minute (angle)

´

1 ´ = (1/60)° = (pi/10,800) rad

Second (angle)

"

1 " = (1/60)´= (pi/648,000) rad

Litre

l1

1 l = 1 dm3 = 10-3 m3

Tonne2

t

1 t = 103 kg

Hectare (land area)

ha

1 ha = 1 hm2 = 104 m2

Electronvolt3

eV

1 eV = 1.602 18 x 10-19 J

Unified atomic mass unit3

u

1 u = 1.660 54 x 10-27 kg

1 Both "l" and "L" are accepted as symbols for litre.

2 In some countries, such as the United States, "metric ton" is used instead of "tonne".

3 The values of these units in SI units are not known exactly; the values must be obtained through experiment. The electronvolt is the kinetic energy acquired by an electron passing through a potential difference of 1 volt in a vacuum.  The unified atomic mass unit equals 1/12 of the mass of the atom of the nuclide 12C.

Table 105.9 Conversion of non-SI units to SI units

From/to

To/from

Multiply by/divide by

Inch (in)

m

2.54 x 10-2

Feet (ft)

m

0.3048

Square inch (in2 )

m2

6.4516 x 10-4

Square foot (ft2 )

m2

9.2903 x 10-2

Cubic inch (in3 )

m3

1.638 71 x 10-5

Cubic foot (ft3 )

m3

2.831 68 x 10-2

Litre (l)

m3

10-3

Gallon (gal)

m3

4.546 09 x 10-3

Mile/hour (mi hr-1 )

m s-1

0.477 04

Kilometre/hour (km hr-1 )

m s-1

0.277 78

Pound (lb)

kg

0.453 592

Gram/cm3 (g cm-3 )

kg m-3

103

Pound/in3

kg m-3

2.767 99 x 104

mmHG

Pa

133.322

Atmosphere (atm)

Pa

1.013 25 x 105

Horsepower (hp)

W

745.7

erg

J

10-7

Electronvolt (eV)

J

1.602 10 x 10-19

Kilowatt-hour (kW hr)

J

3.6 x 106

Calorie (cal)

J

4.1868

Dyne

N

10-5

kgf

N

9.806 65

Poundal

N

0.138 255

lbf

N

4.448 22

Acknowledgement: The information in the tables is based primarily on data from the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

The following abbreviations and acronyms are used in this Encyclopaedia, but the list is not exhaustive. Chemical abbreviations, for example, are not given here. Standard abbreviations for journal names are not listed. The international system of units of measurements and its abbreviations are outlined in a separate section of this chapter.

A

 

AA

Alcoholics Anonymous

AAA

Academics and Workers Action in Denmark

AAAS

American Association for the Advancement of Science

AAO

American Academy of Otolaryngology

AARP

American Association of Retired Persons

AAS

Atom absorption spectroscopy

ABP

Androgen binding protein

ABRIE

General Business Investigation and Risk Inventory and Evaluation

ABS

Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene

AC

Alternating current

ACE

Angiotensin converting enzyme

ACFTU

All-China Confederation of Trade Unions

ACGIH

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists

ACHE

Acetylcholinesterase

ACOG

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

ACS

American Cancer Society

ACS

American Chemical Society

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormones

ACTU

Australian Council of Trade Unions

ADA

Americans with Disabilities Act

ADH

Anti-diuretic hormone

ADI

Acceptable daily intake

ADR

European Agreement Concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road

AEC

Atomic Energy Commission (US)

AEL

Accessible emission limits

AFA

Association of Flight Attendants

AFB

Acid-fast bacilli

AFFF

Aqueous film-forming foam

AFL-CIO

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations

AFNOR

Association française de normalisation

AFSCME

American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees

AGI

All-glass impingers

AGR

Advanced gas-cooled reactors

AHA

American Hospital Association

AHCPR

Agency for Health Care Policy and Research

AI

Alveolar-interstitial

AI

Artificial insemination

AIA

Asbestos International Association

AIA

Aerospace Industries Association

AIChE

American Institute of Chemical Engineers

AIDS

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

AISI

American Iron and Steel Institute

ALA

Aminolaevulinic acid

ALA-D

Aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase

ALARA

As low as reasonably achievable

ALASEHT

Latino-American Association of Occupational Safety and Hygiene

ALA-U

Delta-aminolaevulinic acid in urine

ALI

Annual limits on intake

ALL

Acute lymphocytic leukaemia

ALM

Acral lentiginous me

AM

Amplitude modulation

AMD

Occupational Medical Service

AML

Acute myelocytic leukaemia

AMS

Acute mountain sickness

ANA

Antinuclear antibodies

ANFO

Ammonium nitrate fuel oil

ANLL

Acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia

ANSI

American National Standards Institute

AOEC

Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics

APA

American Psychiatric Association

APA

American Psychological Association

APEC

Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation

APELL

Awareness and preparedness for emergencies at local level

APF

Association des paralysés de France

APF

Assigned protection factor

APHA

American Public Health Association

APHIS

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

API

American Petroleum Institute

APPR

Army package power reactor

APR

Accident prevention regulation

ARDS

Acute respiratory distress syndrome

ARET

Accelerated Reduction/ Elimination of Toxics

AS

Australian Standard

ASA

American Society of Anesthetists

ASEAN

Association of Southeast Asian Nations

ASHRAE

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers

ASL

Angiosarcoma of the liver

ASP

Amnesic shellfish poisoning

ASSE

American Society of Safety Engineers

ASSTAS

Association pour la santé et la sécurité du travail, secteur affaires sociales

AST

Above-ground storage tankage

ASTM

American Society for Testing and Materials

ATA

Alaska Trappers Association

ATBC

Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene

ATM

Automatic teller machines

ATS

American Thoracic Society

ATSDR

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

ATV

All-terrain vehicle

AUC

Area under the curve

AUDIT

Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test

AWT

Computer’s feedback on the average time workers take processing each customer call

B

 

BACT

Best available control technology

BAD

Occupational Medical Service of the Berufsgenossenschaften

BAEP

Brainstem auditory potentials

BAL

British anti-Lewisite

BAL

Bronchoalveolar lavage

BAT

Biological tolerance value

BAU

German federal safety institute

BBP

Bloodborne pathogens

BC

Before Christ

BCF

Bulked continuous filament

BCG

Bacille of Calmette and Guérin

BEI

Biological exposure index

BEIR

Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

BG

The German Berufsgenossenschaften

BGMG

Berufsgenossenschaften Measuring System Hazardous Substances

BGW

Berufsgenossenschaft für Gesundheitsdienst und Wohlfahrtspflege

BIA

Berufsgenossenschaften Association and their Institute for Occupational Safety

BL

Biosafety Level

BLDSC

British Library Document Supply Centre

BLEVE

Boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion

BLS

Bureau of Labor Statistics (US)

BM

Behaviour modification

BMD

Benchmark dose

BMI

Body mass index

BMP

Best Management Practice

BMRC

British Medical Research Council

BNA

Bureau of National Affairs (US)

BOD

Biochemical oxygen demand

BOF

Basic oxygen furnace

BP

British Petroleum

BPPV

Benign positional paroxysmal vertigo

BPR

Business process reengineering

BRF

Basic risk factors

BRI

Building-related illness

BRS

Bortner Rating Scale

BS

British Standard

BSE

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy

BSI

British Standards Institute

BTPS

Body temperature and ambient pressure

BUPA

British United Provident Association

BWR

Boiling water reactor

C

 

CAD

Computer-aided design

CAL

Chronic airflow limitation

CAM

Continuous air monitors

CAM

Chorioallantoic membrane

CAM

Computer-aided manufacturing

CAMAC

Computer Assisted Measurement and Control Association

CAMP

Cyclical adenosinm onophosphate

CAT

Computerized axial tomography

CATI

Computer-aided telephone interview

CBA

Cost benefit analysis

CBC

Complete blood count

CBV

Central blood volume

CC

Closing capacity

CCHF

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever

CCITT

Comité consultatif international des organisations téléphoniques et télégraphiques

CCOHS

Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety

CCPS

Center for Chemical Process Safety

CD

Committee draft

CD-ROM

Compact Disc- Read Only Memory

CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US)

CDT

Cumulative trauma disorders

CE

European Community

CEA

Cost effectiveness analysis

CEC

Commission of European Communities

CEDAW

United Nations Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women in All Its Forms

CEFIC

European Council of Chemical Manufacturers’ Federations

CEI

Cumulative exposure index

CEIC

Canada Employment and Immigration Commission

CEN

European Committee for Standardization

CENELEC

Comité européen de normalisation électrotechnique

CENTC

European Community Standard

CEO

Chief executive officer

CEPA

Canadian Environmental Protection Act

CERN

European Organization for Nuclear Research

CET

Corrected Effective Temperature

CETG

United Nations Committee of Experts on Transport of Dangerous Goods

CF

Complement fixation

CFR

Case-fatality rate

CFRT

Converted floating roof tank

CFST

Federal Commission of Coordination

CFU

Colony-forming units

CHD

Coronary heart disease

CI

Confidence interval

CIBC

International Council of Building Research

CIBSE

Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers

CIE

Commission internationale de l’éclairage

CIM

Computer-integrated manufacturing

CIMAS

International Conference of Sickness Insurance Funds and Mutual Benefit Societies

CIOMS

Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences

CIP

Cleaning-in-place

CIRA

International Committee for the Reglementation of Lifts

CIS

International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre

CISMID

Centro Peruano Japonés de Investigaciones Sísmicas y Mitigación de Desastres

CIVD

Cold-induced vasodilatation

CJD

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

CLL

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

CMA

Cost minimization analysis

CMA

Chemical Manufacturers Association

CMEA

Council for Mutual Economic Assistance

CML

Chronic myelocytic leukaemia

CMS

Chronic mountain sickness

CNA

Caisse nationale suisse d’assurance en cas d’accidents

CNAM

Conservatoire national des arts et métiers

CNC

Computer numeric control

CNC

Computer-assisted numerical control system

CNC

Computer numerical controlled

CNG

Compressed natural gas

CNS

Central nervous system

CNSLD

Chronic non-specific lung disease

COA

Canada-Ontario Agreement

COD

Chemical oxygen demand

COHSE

Confederation of Health Service Employees

COLREG

Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea

COPD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

COPRO

Coproporphyrin

COPRO-U

Coproporphyrin in urine

CORD

Center for Occupational Research and Development

COSH

Committees on Occupational Safety and Health

COTOREP

Commission technique d’orientation et de réinsertion professionnelle

CPAF

Cost plus award fee and production

CPC

Chemical-protective clothing

CPDB

Carcinogen potency database

CPFF

Cost plus fixed fee

CPIAS

Permanent International Committee on Social Insurance

CPR

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

CPS

Cancer Prevention Study

CPSC

Consumer Product Safety Commission

CPTED

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design

CPU

Central processing unit

CQI

Continuous quality improvement

CRT

Cathode ray tub

CRU

Customer replaceable units

CSCL

Chemical Substances Control Law

CSD

Commission on Sustainable Development

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

CSHES

Centres for State Hygienic and Epidemiological Supervision

CSO

Canadian Standards Organization

CT

Computed tomography

CTD

Cumulative trauma disorders

CTM

Mexican Confederation of Workers

CTS

Carpal tunnel syndrome

CUA

Cost utility analysis

CV

Constant volume

CVD

Cardiovascular diseases

CVD

Chemical vapour deposition

CVI

Chemical vapour infiltration

CWP

Coal workers’ pneumoconiosis

D

 

DALY

Disability adjusted life year

DAST

Drug Abuse Screening Test

DBMS

Database management system

DBP

Diastolic blood pressure

DC

Direct current

DF

Defence

DFG

Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft

DG

Directorate General

DHC

Double-hand controls

DI

De-ionized

DIC

Disseminated intra-vascular coagulation

DIESAT

Network of Science Shops in the Netherlands

DIN

German Institute for Normalization

DIP

Dual-in-line package

DIPF

Diffuse and progressive interstitial fibrosis

DIS

Draft International Standard

DISTAT

United Nations Disability Statistics Compendium

DKFZ

German Cancer Research Center

DLCO

Decreased carbon monoxide diffusing capacity

DLE

Duration-limited exposures

DLPW

Department of Labour Protection and Welfare

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

DOE

Department of Energy (US)

DOK-MEGA

Documentation for Measurement Data on Hazardous Substances in the Workplace (German)

DOL

Department of Labor (US)

DOT

Directly observed therapy

DOV

Days from ovulation

DRG

Diagnosis-related grouping

DS

Data sheet

DSM

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (APA)

DSP

Diarrhoetic shellfish poisoning

E

 

E/E/PE

Electro-mechanical, electronic and programmable electronic

EA

Environmental assessment

EAA

Extrinsic allergic alveolitis

EAEC

European Atomic Energy Community

EAF

Electric arc furnace

EAP

Employee assistance programme

EC

Executive Committee

EC50

Effective concentration for 50%

ECA

Epidemiological Catchment Area

ECCS

Emergency core cooling system

ECD

European Commission Directive

ECD

Electron capture detector

ECETOC

European Chemical Industry Ecology-Toxicology Research Centre

ECG

Electrocardiogram

ECLAC

Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

ECO

Pan-American Centre for Human Ecology and Health

ECOSOC

Economic and Social Council

ECSC

European Coal and Steel Community Treaty

ECTU

European Confederation of Trade Unions

ECU

European Social Charter

ECVAM

European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods

EDXA

Energy dispersive x-ray analysis

EEC

European Economic Commission

EEC

European Economic Community

EEC

European Economic Council

EEG

Electroencephalogram

EEO

Equal employment opportunity

EEOC

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (US)

EER

Equilibrium equivalent of radon

EFQM

European Foundation for Quality Management

EFRT

External floating roof tanks

EFTA

European Free Trade Association

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

EHC

Environmental Health Criteria

EHS

Environmental health and safety

EIA

Environmental impact assessment

EIS

Environmental impact statement

EKG

(German) Electrocardiogram

EL

Exposure limits

ELF

Extremely low frequency

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

EM

Electromagnetic

EMC

Electromagnetic compatibility

EMF

Electromagnetic field

EMG

Electromyography

EMI

Electromagnetic interference

EMS

Environmental management system

EMT

Emergency medical technicians

EN

European Norms (Standard)

ENG

Electroneurography

EOG

Electro-oculographic

EP

Evoked potentials

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency (US)

EPM

Electronic performance monitoring

EPRI

Electric Power Research Institute

ER

Endoplasmic reticulum

ERC

Educational Resource Program

EREMP

Emergency Radiological Environmental Monitoring Programme

ERG

Eastern Research Group

ERIC

Educational Resources Information Center

ES

Emergency stop

ESA-IRS

European Space Agency’s Information Retrieval System

ESCAP

Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

ESD

Emergency shut-down valves

ET

Environmental technology

ET

Effective temperature

ETS

Environmental tobacco smoke

ETSI

European Telecommunication Standards Institute

EU

European Union

EUC

Equipment under control

F

 

FAO

Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations

FBR

Fast breeder reactors

FCAW

Flux core arc welding

FCC

Fluid catalytic cracking

FCI

Freezing cold injuries

FDIS

Final Draft International Standard

FDP

Fibrin degradation products

FEMA

Federal Emergency Management Agency (US)

FEP

Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin

FEV1

Forced expiratory volume in 1 second

FFP

Firm fixed price

FFPAF

Firm fixed price award fee

FFR

Fume formation rate

FGR

Fume generation rate

FID

Flame ionization detector

FIET

International Federation of Commercial, Clerical and Technical Employees

FIFRA

Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (US)

FINNIDA

Finnish International Development Agency

FM

Frequency modulation

FMEA

Failure mode and effect analysis

FO

Objective fit

FOPS

Falling-object protective structures

FPA

Fire Protection Association

FPHS

Farmers’ Preventive Health Service

FRC

Functional residual capacity

FREM

Fire risk evaluation method

FRG

Federal Republic of Germany

FRPP

Flame-resistant polypropylene

FRS

Call restraint system

FS

Subjective fit

FSH

Follicle stimulating hormone

FTAS

Framingham Type A Scale

FTP

File transfer protocols

FVC

Forced vital capacity

G

 

GAG

Glycosaminoglycan

GATT

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

GDP

Gross domestic product

GDR

German Democratic Republic

GEENET

Global Environmental Epidemiology Network

GEMS

Generic error modelling system

GEMS/Food

Joint UNEP/FAO/WHO Food Contamination Monitoring Programme

GFI

Ground fault interrupter

GFT

General failure types

GHG

Greenhouse gases

GIFAP

International Group of National Associations of Agrochemical Manufacturers

GISBAU

Gefahrstoff-Informationssystem der Berufsgenossenschaften der Bauwirtschaft

GIT

Gastrointestinal tract

GLP

Good laboratory practice

GLR

Gas cooled reactors

GLSP

Good large-scale practice

GLWQA

Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement

G-M

Geiger-Mueller

GC

Gas chromatography

GMAW

Gas metal arc welding

GMO

Genetically manipulated organism

GMP

Good manufacturing practice

GNP

Gross national product

GOST

State standards on occupational health and safety in the Russian Federation

GRP

Glass-reinforced plastics

GTAW

Gas tungsten arc welding

H

 

HAP

Hazardous air pollutants

HASS

Home Accident Surveillance System

HAV

Hand-arm vibration

HAV

Hepatitis A virus

HAVS

Hand-arm vibration syndrome

HAZMAT

Hazardous materials

HAZOP

Hazard and operability studies

HBIG

Hepatitis B immune globulin

HBsAg

Hepatitis B surface antigen

HBV

Hepatitis B virus

HCC

Hepatocellular carcinoma

HCG

Human chorionic gonadotrophins

HCIM

Human and computer-integrated manufacturing

HCL

Health care leader

HCP

Hearing conservation programmes

HCS

Hazard Communication Standard

HCT

Health care trainers

HCV

Hepatitis C virus

HCW

Health care worker

HD

Hodgkin’s disease

HDL

High density lipoproteins

HDV

Hepatitis D virus

HEG

Homogeneous exposure groups

HEPA

High efficiency particulate air filters

HEPA

High-efficiency particulate attenuator

HEPS

Health and Epidemic Prevention Station

HFRS

Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

HG

Highest grade

HHS

Hypothenar hammer syndrome

HID

High-intensity discharge

HIP

Hazard identification process

HIP

Hot isostatic pressing

HiPox

High-pressure oxidation

HIV

Human-immunodeficiency virus

HMO

Health maintenance organization

HMTRI

Hazardous Materials Training and Research Institute

HP

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis

HPD

Hearing protection devices

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

HPP

Health promotion and prevention

HPP

Health protection and promotion

HPS

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

HR

Heart rate

HR

Highly recommended

HRA

Health risk appraisal

HRCT

High resolution computer tomography

HRDI

Human Resources Development Institute

HRGC

High-resolution capillary columns

HRM

Human resources management

HRT

Hormone replacement therapy

HSDIP

Hygienic standards for design of industrial premises

HSE

Health and Safety Executive (UK)

HSEES

Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance

HSI

Heat Stress Index

HV

High voltage

HVAC

Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning

HVBG

Central Federation of the Berufsgenossenschaften

HVL

Half-value layer

HVLP

High volume, low pressure

HVR

Hypoxic ventilatory response

HVT

Half-value thickness

HWE

Healthy worker effect

HY

High yield

I

 

IAAMRH

International Association on Agricultural Medicine and Rural Health

IACRS

Inter-Agency Committee on Radiation Safety

IAEA

International Atomic Energy Association

IALI

International Association of Labour Inspection

IAM

International Association of Machinists

IAMAW

International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers

IAOP

International Association of Outplacement Professionals

IAQ

Indoor air quality

IARC

International Agency for Research on Cancer

IAS

Institute for Occupational and Social Medicine

IASC

Inter-American Safety Council

IATA

International Air Transport Association

IBC

Institutional Biosafety Committee

IBC

Individual bulk containers

IBE

International Bureau for Epilepsy

IBM

International Business Machines

IBS

Irritable bowel syndrome

ICAO

International Civil Aviation Organization

ICC

International Chambers of Commerce

ICC

Intraclass correlation coefficient

ICCA

International Council of Chemical Associations

ICCVAM

Interagency Coordinating Committee for the Validation of Alternative Methods

ICD

International Classification of Disease

ICE

Interleukin converting enzyme

ICEF

International Federation of Chemical, Energy and General Workers’ Union

ICEM

International Confederation of Chemical, Energy, Mine and General Workers’ Union

ICESCR

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

ICFTU

International Confederation of Free Trade Unions

ICI

Industrial, commercial and institutional

ICIDH

International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps

ICIE

International Centre for Industry and the Environment

ICME

International Council on Metals and the Environment

ICN

International Council of Nurses

ICNIRP

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection

ICOH

International Commission on Occupational Health

ICRP

International Commission on Radiological Protection

ICSU

International Council of Scientific Union

ICTU

Irish Congress of Trade Unions

ICWU

International Chemical Workers Union

I-E

Internal-external

IC

Integrated circuit

ID

Inside diameter

IDB

Inter-American Development Bank

IDC

Industrially developing country

IDLH

Immediately dangerous to life and health

IDNDR

United Nations International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction

IDPIS

Integrated Drug and Poison Information Service (Thailand)

IDV

Indinavir

IEA

International Ergonomics Association

IEC

International Electrotechnical Commission

IEEE

Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers

IES

Illuminating Engineering Society

IFB

Invitation for bid

IFBWW

International Federation of Building and Wood Workers

IFIESR

International Foundation for Industrial Ergonomics and Safety Research

IFRCRCS

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

IFSG

International Fiber Safety Group

IGO

Intergovernmental organizations

IHD

Ischaemic heart disease

IHEA

International Hunter Education Association

IILS

International Institute for Labour Studies

IISI

International Iron and Steel Institute

IJC

International Joint Commission

IJOEH

International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health

IL2

Interleukin-2

ILC

International Labour Conference

ILCOS

International Lamp Coding System

ILGWU

International Ladies Garment Workers Union

ILO

International Labour Organization

ILO

International Labour Office

IMDG

International Maritime Dangerous Goods

IMIS

Integrated Management Information System

IMO

International Maritime Organization

IMV

Index of median values

INES

International nuclear events scale

INH

Isoniazid

INIRC/IRPA

International Committee for Non-Ionizing Radiation of the International Radiation Protection Association

IOCC

Inter-Organization Coordinating Committee

IOCU

International Organization of Consumers Unions

IOE

International Employers Organization

IOHA

International Occupational Hygiene Association

IOM

Institute of Occupational Medicine

IOM/CAPM

Institute of Occupational Medicine, Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine

IOMC

Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals

IPAI

International Primary Aluminum Institute

IPCC

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IPCS

International Programme on Chemical Safety

IPEC

International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

IPEET

Inter-American Partnership for Environmental Education and Training

IPM

Integrated pest management

IPM

Inhalable particulate mass

IPM

Inspirable particulate mass

IQ

Intelligence quotient

IR

Ionizing radiation

IR

Infrared radiation

IRB

Institutional Review Board

IREQ

Calculated required insulation value

IRPA

International Radiation Protection Association

IRPTC

International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals

IRR

Infrared radiation

IRSST

Institute for Occupational Health and Safety Research (Quebec, Canada)

IS

International Standard

ISA

International Standards Association

ISA

Instrument Society of America

ISBN

International Standard Book Number

ISCO

International Standard Classification of Occupations

ISIC

International Standard Industrial Classification

ISO

International Organization for Standardization

ISRS

International Safety Rating System

ISSA

International Social Security Association

ISSA

International Safety and Security Association

ITQ

Individual transferable quota

ITS

Index of thermal stress

ITV

Interactive television

IUCN

International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources-World Conservation Union

IUD

Intrauterine contraceptive device

IUPAC

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

IVP

Intravenous pyelogram

IWC

International Whaling Commission

J

 

JAS

Jenkins Activity Survey

JECFA

Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives

JISHA

Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association

JIT

Just-in-time production

JMA

Japan Medical Association

JMPR

Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues

JPCG

Joint Presidents Coordinating Group

JPG

Joint Presidents Group

JSOH

Japan Society for Occupational Health

K

 

KSA

Knowledge, skills and abilities

L

 

LADAPT

Ligue pour l’adaptation des diminués physiques au travail

LAMP

Lakewide management plan

LAN

Local area network

LBP

Low-back pain

LBW

Low birth weight

LCA

Life-cycle assessments

LCD

Liquid crystal display

LCI

Life-cycle inventory

LCM

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis

LD

Linz-Donowitz

LD50

Lethal dose -50%

LDH

Lactate dehydrogenase

LDL

Low density lipoproteins

LEC

Low-pressure liquid encapsulated Czochralski

LED

Light-emitting diodes

LEL

Lower explosive limits

LET

Linear energy transfer

LEV

Local exhaust ventilation

LFL

Lower flammable limits

LH

Luteinizing hormone

LHD

Load-haul-dump

LI

Lifting index

LISREL

Weight-least squares statistical analysis procedure

LIUNA

Laborers International Union of North America

LMC

Landell Mills Commodities

LMFBR

Liquid metal fast breeder reactors

LMM

Lentigo malignant melanomas

LNG

Liquefied natural gas

LOAEL

Lowest observed adverse effect level

LOC

Locus of control

LOEL

Lowest observable effect level

LOSC

Montego Bay Convention on the Law of the Sea

LP

Liquid petroleum

LPE

Liquid-phase epitaxy

LPG

Liquefied petroleum gas

LPN

Licensed practical nurse

LSF

Low smoke and fire

LSF

Low-solids flux

LTA

Less than adequate

LTT

Lymphocyte transformation test

LVD

Low Voltage Directive

LWGR

Light water graphite reactors

M

 

MAC

Maximum allowable concentrations

MAIM

Merseyside Accident Information Model

MAK

Maximum workplace concentration

MALT

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue

MAP

Membership Assistance Programmes

MARPOL

London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter

MAST

Michigan Alcohol Screening Test

MAT

Mobile access towers

MBA

Master of Business Administration

MBE

Molecular-beam epitaxy

MCM

Million cubic metres

MCQ

Multiple-choice questions

MCS

Multiple chemical sensitivities

MCV

Mean corpuscular volume

MD

Machinery Directive

MDF

Medium-density fibreboard

MDT

Multidisciplinary teams

MED

Minimal erythemal dose

MEQ

Modified essay questions

MERCOSUR

Southern Market -Mercado Común del Sur

MeV

Million electron volts

MFF

Metal fume fever

MG

Mean grade

MGP

Manufactured gas plant

MHC

Mental health counsellors

MHW

Ministry of Health and Welfare

MI

Mineral insulated

MIE

Minimal ignition energy

MIG

Metal inert gas

MIS

Management information system

MITI

Ministry of International Trade and Industry

ML

Maximum levels

MLSS

Mixed liquor suspended solids

MM

Multiple myeloma

MM

Maintenance management

MMC

Metal-matrix composites

MMF

Man-made mineral fibres

MMH

Manual materials handling

MMPI

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Index

MMR

Measles-mumps-rubella

MMVF

Man-made vitreous fibres

MN

Micronuclei

MNC

Multinational corporations

MOA

Ministry of Agriculture

MOCVD

Metallorganic chemical-vapour deposition

MOIA

Ministry of Industrial Administration

MOL

Ministry of Labour

MOPH

Ministry of Public Health

MOR

Mortality odds ratio

MORT

Management Oversight and Risk Tree

MPD

Minimum premarketing set of data

MPPD

Maximum Probable Property Damage

MPS

Mononuclear phagocyte system

MR

Magnetic resonance

MRC

Medical Research Council

MRC

Metallic replacement cartridges

MRF

Material recycling facilities

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

MRL

Maximum residue levels

MS

Mainstream smoke

MSD

Motion Sickness Dose Value

MSDS

Material safety data sheet

MSF

Manufacturing-Science-Finance

MSHA

Mine Safety and Health Administration

MSI

Musculoskeletal injuries

MSW

Municipal solid waste

MTBF

Mean time between failures

MTBM

Mean time between maintenance

MTD

Maximum tolerated dose

MTF

Modulation transfer function

MUB

Molasses urea block

MVC

Maximal voluntary capacity

MVK

Moolgavkar-Venzon-Knudson

MVLC

Maximal voluntary lifting capacity

MVOC

Microbial volatile organic compounds

MWe

Megawatts of electric power

MWL

Mental workload

MWR

Megawatts of refrigeration

MYR

Million ringgit

N

 

NA

Negative affectivity

NADH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

NAEP

National Asthma Education Program

NAFTA

North American Free Trade Agreement

NAS

National Academy of Science (US)

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (US)

NASA-TLX

NASA Task Load Index

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NBC

Nuclear, biological, chemical

NBR

Non-specific bronchial responsiveness

NC

Nutrition counsellors

NC

Numerically controlled

NC

Numerical control

NCHS

National Center for Health Statistics (US)

NCI

National Cancer Institute (US)

NCODD

National Committee on Occupational Disease Diagnosis

NCODPT

National Centre for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment

NCOHR

National Centre of Occupational Health Reporting

NCRP

National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

NCTB

Neurobehavioral Core Test Battery

NCV

Nerve conduction velocity

NDIR

Non-dispersive infrared detectors

NEETC

National Environmental Education and Training Center, Inc.

NEG

Nordic Expert Group

NEPA

National Environmental Policy Act

NES

Neurobehavioral Evaluation System

NESC

National Electrical Safety Code

NESHAP

Aerospace National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants

NFCI

Non-freezing cold injuries

NFPA

National Fire Protection Association (US)

NGO

Non-governmental organization

NHANES

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

NHIS

National Health Interview Survey

NHL

Non-Hodgkins lymphoma

NHS

National Health Service

NHZ

Nominal hazard zone

NIC

Newly industrialized countries

NICE

National Institute for the Improvement of Working Conditions and Environment

NIEHS

National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences

NIH

National Institutes of Health (US)

NIHG

National Institutes of Health Guidelines (US)

NIHL

Noise-induced hearing loss

NIMBY

Not in my back yard

NIMH

National Institute for Mental Health

NIOSH

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (US)

NiPERA

Nickel Producers Evironmental Research Association

NIPTS

Noise-induced permanent threshold shift

NIR

Non-ionizing radiation

NK

Natural killer [cell]

NM

Nodular melanomas

NMR

Nuclear magnetic resonance

NMSC

Non-melanocytic skin cancers

NMWCC

National Maximum Workplace Concentration Committee

NOAEL

No observed adverse effect level

NOEL

No observable effect level

NOES

National Occupational Exposure Surveys

NP

Nasopharyngeal

NPD

Nitrogen and phosphorus detector

NPP

Nuclear power plant

NPRI

National Pollutant Release Inventory

NR

Not recommended

NR

Noise reduction

NRC

National Research Council (US)

NRL

Natural rubber latex

NRPB

National Radiological Protection Board

NRR

Noise Reduction Rating

NSAID

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

NSC

National Safety Council (US)

NSCLC

Non-small cell lung cancer

NSD

National Safety Day

NSF

National Science Foundation

NTCHS

National Technical Committee of Hygienic Standards

NTIS

National Technical Information Service (US)

NTOF

National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities

NUD

Non-ulcer dyspepsia

NVOC

Non-volatile organic compound

NYC/TLC

New York City/Taxi and Limousine Commission

O

 

OA

Occupational asthma

OAAAS

Occupational asthma associated with aluminium smelting

OAP

Occupationally acquired pneumonia

OARU

Occupational Accident Research Unit

OAS

Organization of American States

OATUU

Organization of African Trade Union Unity

OAU

Organization of African Unity

OBM

Organization behaviour management

OCD

Occupational cervicobrachial disorder

OCP

Organochlorine pesticides

OCR

Optical character reader

OD

Optical densities

ODC

Occupational Disease Certification

ODIN

Organizational Service for On-going Examinations

ODM

Omni Diurnal Model

ODTS

Organic dust toxic syndrome

OECD

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

OECD

Organization for Economic and Cultural Development

OEH

Occupational and environmental health

OEL

Occupational exposure limits

OES

Occupational Exposure Standards

OHAS

Open hybrid automated system

OHC

Occupational health counsellors

OHC

Occupational health centres

OHI

Occupational health institutions

OHO

Occupational health organization

OHPP

Occupational health promotion physicians

OILPOL

Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil

OMB

Office of Management and Budget

OMNI

Occupational Medicine and Nursing Information

OMVPE

Metallorganic chemical-vapour deposition

ONAC

Office des anciens combattants

OP

Occupational health physician

OPA

Occupational disease prevention

OR

Odds ratio

ORSE

Optimal room surveillance equipment

OSHA

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

OSTP

Office of Science and Technology Policy

OTA

Office of Technology Assessment

OTC

Over-the-counter

P

 

P&G

Proctor & Gamble

P&ID

Process and implementation diagrams

P/I

Piping and instrumentation

PAW

Plasma-arc welding

P-E

Person-environment

PA

Positive affectivity

PAH

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

PAHO

Pan-American Health Organization

PAPR

Powered air-purifying respirator

PAQ

Position analysis questionnaire

PAR

Population attributable risk

PAR

Parabolic aluminized reflector

PAS

Pellenberg Audit System

PB

Barometric pressure

PBPK

Physiologically based pharmacokinetics

PBX

Private branch exchange

PC

Personal computer

PC

Programmable controller

PCB

Polychlorinated biphenyls

PCB

Printed circuit board

PCHE

Plasma cholinesterase

PCI

Pulverized coal injection

PCMR

Proportionate cancer mortality ratio

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

PEF

Peak expiratory flow

PEL

Permissible exposure limits

PEP

Post-exposure prophylaxis

PES

Programmable Electronic Systems

PET

Positron-emission tomography

PETE

Partnership for Environmental Technology Education

PFAS

Personal fall arrest system

PFD

Personal flotation device

PFU

Plaque-forming units

PHC

Municipal health centres in Finland

PHCW

Primary health care workers

PHEL

Physiological heat exposure limit

PHS

Public Health Service (US)

PHWR

Pressurized heavy water reactors

PID

Photo-ionization detector

PIRS

Passive infrared sensor

PLC

Programmable logic controller

PLS

Pregnant leach solution

PM

Poor metabolizer

PMF

Progressive massive fibrosis

PMN

Premanufacture notification

PMR

Proportional mortality ratio

PMS

Premenstrual syndrome

PMV

Predicted Mean Vote

PNOC

Particulate not otherwise classified

PNS

Peripheral nervous system

POAH

Pre-optic/anterior hypothalamus

POC

Performance operating characteristic

POM

Particulate organic matter

POMS

Profile of Mood States

POP

Persistent organic pollutants

POTW

Publicly owned treatment works

PPD

Purified protein derivative

PPE

Personal protective equipment

PPO

Preferred provider organization

PRA

Pre-Retirement Association

PRD

Product requirements document

PRN

Planning of Required Nursing

PROBAS

Danish Product Register Data Base

PRV

Pressure relief valves

PSA

Prostate specific antigen

PSC

Probabilistic safety criteria

PSL

Priority Substances List

PSP

Paralytic shellfish poisoning

PSS

Particle size selective

PSS

Progressive systemic scleroderma

PTO

Power-take-off

PTS

Permanent threshold shift

PTSD

Post-traumatic stress disorder

PUF

Polyurethane foams

PV

Pressure-vacuum

PVD

Physical vapour deposition

PWB

Printed wiring board

PWI

Projects with Industry

PWR

Pressurized water reactor

Q

 

QALY

Quality adjusted life year

QFD

Quality function deployment

QR

Quick response

QRA

Quantified risk assessment

QWL

Quality of Working Life

R

 

R&D

Research and development

RAC

Recombinant Advisory Committee

RACB

Reproductive assessment by continuous breeding

RADS

Reactive airway dysfunction syndrome

RAMS

Russian Academy of Medical Scientists

RAP

Remedial action plan

RAS

Relative aerobic strain

RBC

Red blood corpuscles

RBE

Relative biological effectiveness

RBM

Raise boring machines

RBMK

Pressure tube large power boiling water reactors

RBMK

Power pressure-tube reactor

RCC

Renal cell carcinoma

RCT

Rational choice theory

RCW

Cold weather ration

RDF

Refuse derived fuel

rDNA

Recombinant DNA

REL

Recommended exposure limits

REM

Rapid eye movement

RES

Reference Energy System

RES

Reticuloendothelial system

RFP

Request for proposal

R-R

Response-response

RA

Rosin active

RF

Rheumatoid factors

RF

Radiofrequency

RfD

Reference dose

RFO

Reduced-flow orifices

RH

Relative humidity

RHR

Rate of heat release

RHT

Risk homeostasis theory

RID

International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail

RIE

Reactive ion etching

RIF

Reduction in force

RMA

Rosin mildly active

RNA

Ribonucleic acid

RNUR

Renault Organization

ROM

Run-of-mine

ROPS

Rollover protective structures

RPE

Rating of perceived exertion

RPM

Respirable particulate mass

RR

Relative risk

RSI

Repetitive strain injury

RT

Respiratory tract

RTB

Retinol binding protein

RTECS

Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances

RTUM

Rehabilitation Technology Usability Model

RV

Residual volume

S

 

SAB

Spontaneous abortion

SAE

Society of Automotive Engineers

SAG

Soviet Wismut Company

SAR

Specific absorption rate

SAR

Structure-activity relationships

SARA

Superfund Act Reauthorization Amendment (US)

SAT

Soil-aquifer treatment

SAW

Submerged arc welding

SBN

Single breath nitrogen

SBP

Systolic blood pressure

SBR

Styrene-butadiene rubber

SBS

Sick building syndrome

SEER

Surveillance, epidemiology and end results

S-R

Stimulus-response

S-S

Stimulus-stimulus

SC

Subcommittee

SCAT

Special casualty access teams

SCBA

Self-contained breathing apparatus

SCE

Sister chromatid exchange

SCLC

Large cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma

SCUBA

Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus

SD

Standard deviation

SDAG

Soviet-German Wismut Company

SDI

Selective dissemination of information

SDQ

Safety Diagnosis Questionnaire

SDWA

Safe Drinking Water Act

SE

Self-esteem

SEAT

Seat effective amplitude transmissibility

SED

System ergonomic design

SEIU

Service Employees International Union

SELF

Ergonomics Society of French-Speaking Countries

SEMI

Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International

SEN/slide

Single-edge-notched/slide

SET

Standard effective temperature

SEU

Subjective expected utility

SEZ

Special economic zones

SGA

Small for gestational age

SI

Système international (International system of units of measurements)

SI

Structured interview

SIA

Semiconductor Industry Association

SIC

Standard Industrial Classification

SIDS

Sudden infant death syndrome

SIL

Safety Integrity Level

SIL

Speech interference levels

SkBF

Skin blood flow

SLE

Systemic lupus erythematosus

SLM

Sound level meter

SMAW

Shielded metal arc welding

SMC

Surface mount components

SME

Small- and medium-sized enterprises

SMORT

Safety Management and Organization Review Technique

SMP

Suspended particulate matter

SMR

Standardized Mortality Ratio

SMT

Surface mounting technology

SNAP

Sensory action potential

SNOMED

Systematic Nomenclature of Medicine

SNR

Single Number Rating

SOC

Sense of coherence

SOGS

South Oaks Gambling Screen

SOLAS

International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea

SOP

Strategic Options Process

SPECT

Single photon emission computed tomography

SPES

Swedish Performance Evaluation System

SPF

Sun protection factor

SPL

Sound pressure level

SPM

Suspended particulate matter

SPRIA

Society for Participatory Research in Asia

SRR

Standardized rate ratio

SS

Sidestream smoke

SS

Suspended solids

SSE

Small-scale enterprise

SSM

Superficial spreading melanomas

STD

Sexually transmitted disease

STEL

Short-term exposure limit

STEP

Sequentially timed events plotting procedure

SUVA

Swiss National Accident Insurance Organization

SUW

Solid urban wastes

SV

Stroke volume

SV40

Simian virus 40

SVOC

Semi-volatile organic compounds

SWORD

Surveillance of Work-related Respiratory Disease

SXEW

Solvent extraction/ electrowinning process

T

 

TABP

Type A behaviour pattern

TAD

Technical Inspection Service

TB

Tracheobronchial

TBM

Tunnel-boring machine

TBS-GA

Tätigkeitsbewertungs System für geistige Arbeit (Task Diagnosis Survey-Mental Work)

TC

Technical committees

TCC

Transitional cell carcinoma

TCC

Thermofor catalytic cracking

THP

Total Health Promotion

TI

Texas Instruments

TIG

Tungsten inert gas

TLC

Total lung capacity

TLD

Thermoluminescent dosimeters

TLV

Threshold limit value

TLV-STEL

Threshold limit values- short-term exposure levels

TLV-TWA

Threshold limit value-time weighted average

TNF

Tumour necrosis factor

TNO

Dutch National Technical Institute

TOC

Total organic carbon

TOP

Technology, organization and personnel

TOS

Toxic oil syndrome

TPDA

Tellurium-radioiodinated fatty acid

TPM

Thoracic particulate mass

TQA

Total quality assurance

TQC

Total quality control

TQL

Total quality leadership

TQM

Total quality management

TRGS

Technical rules for hazardous substances

TRI

Toxic Release Inventory

TSCA

Toxic Substances Control Act (US)

TSD

Theory of signal detection

TSNA

Tobacco-specific nitrosamines

TSP

Total suspended particles

TSS

Total suspended solids

TST

Tuberculin skin test

TTE

Total time exposed

TTS

Temporary threshold shift

TUC

Trades Union Congress (UK)

TUR

Toxics use reduction

TUTB

European Trade Union Technical Bureau for Occupational Safety and Health

TVL

Tenth-value layer

TVOC

Total volatile organic compound

TWA

Time-weighted average

TWAL

Time-weighted average limit

U

 

UAW

United Auto Workers

UDHR

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

ULPZ

Upper limit of the prescriptive zone

ULV

Ultra-low volume

UN

United Nations

UNCED

United Nations Conference on Environment and Development

UNCETG

United Nations Committee of Experts on Transport of Dangerous Goods

UNCHR

United Nations Commission on Human Rights

UNCLOS

United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea

UNCTAD

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

UNCTC

United Nations Centre on Transnational Corporations

UNDP

United Nations Development Programme

UNDRO

United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator Office

UNECE

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

UNEP

United Nations Environment Programme

UNEP-IRPTC

UNEP International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals

UNESCO

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

UNFCCC

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

UNFPA

United Nations Fund for Population Activities

UNGA

United Nations General Assembly

UNICE

Union of Industrial and Employers Confederations of Europe

UNIDO

United Nations Industrial Development Organization

UNIPEDE

Union internationale des producteurs et distributeurs d’énergie électrique

UNRTDG

United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods

UNSCEAR

United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation

UOEH

University of Occupational and Environmental Health (Japan)

USAID

United States Agency for International Development

USBLS

United States Bureau of Labor Statistics

USCFR

United States Code of Federal Regulations

USDA

United States Department of Agriculture

USDHHS

United States Department of Health and Human Services

USDOE

United States Department of Energy

USDOL

United States Department of Labor

USM

University Sains Malaysia

USNRC

United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission

USOTA

United States Office of Technology Assessment

USPHS

United States Public Health Services

UST

Underground storage tanks

UV

Ultraviolet

UVA

Ultraviolet radiation-A

UVB

Ultraviolet radiation-B

UVC

Ultraviolet radiation-C

UVGI

Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation

UVR

Ultraviolet radiation

V

 

VA

Visual acuity

VAV

Variable volume

VC

Vital capacity

VCR

Vertical crater retreat

VDT

Video display terminal

VDU

Visual display unit

VLF

Very low frequency

VMT

Vehicle mile travelled

VOC

Volatile organic compound

VPE

Vapour-phase epitaxy

VPP

Voluntary protection programme

VVS

Vibration-related vasospastic syndrome

VWF

Vibration-induced white finger

W

 

WAA

Work-aggravated asthma

WANO

World Association of Nuclear Operators

WBC

White blood corpuscles

WBGT

Wet bulb globe temperature

WC

Water closet

WCB

Workers’ Compensation Board

WCGS

Western Collaborative Group Study

WCI

Wind Chill Index

WCL

World Confederation of Labour

WCS

Workers’ compensation system

WD

Working draft

WEF

Work Environment Fund (Sweden)

WERC

Waste-management Education and Research Consortium

WFTU

World Federation of Trade Unions

WG

Working group

WGT

Wet globe temperature

WHA

World Health Assembly

WHIMS

Wet high-intensity separator

WHMIS

Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (Canada)

WHO

World Health Organization

WHPA

Well head protection area

WLM

Working Level Month

WMA

World Medical Association

WRAP

Waste Reduction Always Pays

WRMD

Work-related musculoskeletal disorder

WTO

World Trade Organization

Y

 

YMCA

Young Men’s Christian Association

Z

 

ZCTU

Zambia Congress of Trade Unions

ZDV

Zidovudine

ZeBWis

Wismut Central Care Office

ZIGUV

Central Information System of the BG

ZPP

Zinc protoporphyrin